眾新聞 Logo
眾新聞 CitizenNews
tri-angles

Anatomy of an outbreak - Dr Siddharth Sridhar


By Siddharth Sridhar, clinical assistant professor from the Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong

Seeing COVID-19 case numbers increase with daily new 'record highs' is scary. We have now had case numbers exceeding 100/day in Hong Kong for the last 4 days. However, it is more informative to look at the epidemic curve than the daily case counts.

The two graphs below are taken from the excellent HKU School of Public Health COVID-19 dashboard, which is updated daily. The graphs have an important difference: the top one shows case counts by date of symptom onset in patients while the bottom one shows case counts by date of confirmation of COVID-19 in patients.

From HKU School of Public Health Covid19 dashboard, markups by Dr. Sridhar.

Can you spot the differences?

1) Firstly, the upper graph is a more accurate indicator of the extent of community COVID-19 transmission than the bottom graph. This is because people present to medical attention after a variable lag time from symptom onset. So, the symptom onset date is a better reflection of COVID-19 in the community than confirmation date. Looking at the outbreak in March, when the confirmed case counts are just reaching their peak, the epidemic curve shows that the case counts are already starting to decline (blue dotted line added by me). And by the time the confirmed case counts are declining, the epidemic curve shows almost no new local cases (orange dotted line added by me).

2) Looking at the current outbreak, it is clear that the first wavelet in early July occurred approximately one incubation period (IP) after the Dragon Boat holiday while a second wavelet occurred approximately 1 IP after the July 1'st holiday. Crowding in indoor areas during these two public holidays and the intervening weekend has propagated the current outbreak.

3) These two wavelets resulted in massive community transmission causing a peak of cases from July 15 - 18 (marked by me using a purple rectangle). Most of the 100+ cases that we are hearing about these few days represent this peak (~ one IP since early July + lag-time before case confirmation).

4) Now comes the interesting part. The two curves show opposite trends as of yesterday. The upper curve is downtrending with fewer cases with symptom onset after 18/7/20 (already ~ 7 days ago) despite increased surveillance for COVID-19. The bottom curve is rising for the reason stated in point 3.

5) What does this observation mean? Either this is a dip before another peak (a feature of a propagated outbreak) or it represents a genuine downward trend in COVID-19 transmission due to stricter control measures and social distancing introduced around mid-July. I am hopeful that it is the latter given the apparent decline in the effective reproductive number (also available in the SPH dashboard).

6) So what do we do next? We need to push ahead stringently with physical distancing and wear face masks outside the home. This is because we are aiming for a ZERO COVID Hong Kong, not just reducing the case numbers. With an outbreak of this size, you are going to have many little sub-outbreaks flaring up across the territory in coming days (like the U Hall outbreak). But if everyone remains vigilant, their sizes can be controlled.

Take heart. This battle is winnable.


請加入成為眾新聞的月費訂戶,長期支持我們的工作。所有訂戶都可以收到我們的「每周時事」通訊 。

月費訂戶網址:hkcnews.com/aboutus/#subscribe